Table 5

SMRs for cohort members by maximum blood lead category*

Max blood lead<20 µg/m3 Max blood lead 20–39 µg/m3 Max blood lead>40 µg/m3
CauseObservedSMR95% CIObservedSMR95% CIObservedSMR95% CI
Bladder cancer270.840.52 to 1.14300.830.53 to 1.13551.54†1.13 to 1.88
Brain cancer390.780.54 to 1.03400.840.58 to 1.10330.930.61 to 1.20
Breast cancer180.570.31 to 0.83211.040.60 to 1.49161.110.56 to 1.57
Cerebrovascular disease3000.820.73 to 0.913140.990.88 to 1.102630.990.87 to 1.09
COPD1280.780.65 to 0.921820.960.82 to 1.102421.33†1.16 to 1.47
Oesophageal cancer360.880.59 to 1.17480.930.67 to 1.19551.070.79 to 1.32
Ischaemic heart disease11090.810.76 to 0.8610750.850.80 to 0.9010591.020.96 to 1.07
Kidney cancer470.650.46 to 0.83310.540.35 to 0.72280.730.46 to 0.97
Kidney disease170.840.44 to 1.24170.580.30 to 0.85311.190.77 to 1.55
Larynx cancer80.710.22 to 1.21100.750.29 to 1.22211.80†1.03 to 2.46
Leukaemia491.140.82 to 1.45410.910.63 to 1.18250.690.42 to 0.92
Lung cancer3500.900.81 to 1.004901.06 to 1.265061.38†1.26 to 1.48
Multiple myeloma210.800.46 to 1.14220.880.51 to 1.25120.600.26 to 0.89
Non-Hodgkins lymphoma520.950.69 to 1.20320.600.39 to 0.81360.870.59 to 1.12
Pharynx cancer60.470.09 to 0.8580.560.17 to 0.96131.130.52 to 1.66
Stomach cancer670.920.70 to 1.14751.160.90 to 1.43540.970.71 to 1.19
Accidents(transportation)‡330.600.39 to 0.80870.940.74 to 1.13640.970.73 to 1.17
  • *SMRs calculated using national rates for USA, UK and Finland, adjusted for age/gender/calendar time.

  • †CI excludes 1.

  • ‡Restricted to the USA and UK, no rates available for Finland.

  • COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.