Table 1

Demographics of the survey respondents for both hospitals

Baseline comparison
BivariatesStudy hospital (A)
(N=580)
% (N) or mean (SE)
Comparison hospital (B)*
Weighted (N=1011)
% (N) or mean (SE)
Gender
 Male6.5% (37)8.6% (189)
 Female93.5% (528)91.4% (2016)
Age42.7 (±0.49)40.6 (±0.43)
Occupation
 Staff nurse81.3% (470)85.2% (1890)
 Patient care associate16.6% (96)10.5% (233)
 Clinical nurse specialist2.1% (12)2.7% (61)
 Other0.0% (0)1.5% (33)
Hours worked (hours)
 <3021.6% (125)20.5% (456)
 30–3412.6% (73)9.0% (200)
 35–3942.3% (245)38.0% (842)
 40–4421.9% (127)29.0% (643)
 Over 441.6% (9)3.5% (77)
Typical shift
 Day35.5% (205)22.0% (487)
 Evening7.1% (41)5.8% (128)
 Night31.5% (182)21.0% (466)
 Other26.0% (150)51.2% (1135)
Race/ethnicity
 Hispanic5.8% (33)3.2% (71)
 White75.7% (431)82.1% (1814)
 Black12.8% (73)6.6% (146)
 Mixed race/other5.6% (32)8.1% (178)
Education
 Grade 12/GED or less4.6% (26)1.4% (31)
 1–3 years of college or tech school21.9% (124)15.8% (345)
 4-year college degree (graduated)55.2% (312)65.1% (1423)
 Any graduate school18.2% (103)17.7% (388)
Pain outcomes
Any pain
 No20.3% (116)21.1% (462)
 Yes79.7% (456)78.9% (1722)
Work interference
 No69.8% (399)73.7% (1603)
 Yes30.2% (173)26.3% (572)
Pain severity scale2.8 (±0.12)2.5 (±0.08)
Pain severity scale >3
 No54.8% (308)59.4% (1308)
 Yes45.2% (254)40.6% (895)
Patient handling practices
SPH (1–5)2.3 (±0.04)2.4 (±0.04)
Unsafe patient handling scale (1–5)2.1 (±0.03)2.2 (±0.02)
Patient repositioning (lifts/shift)12.2 (±0.38)12.7 (±0.34)
SPH norms and efficacy
Work-unit SPH norms (1–5+)3.4 (±0.03)3.4 (±0.02)
Self-efficacy SPH device use (1–5+)3.5 (±0.05)3.6 (±0.04)
Other work practices
Safety practices (5Q) scale3.6 (±0.03)3.9 (±0.03)
Ergonomics practices (6Q) scale3.0 (±0.04)3.1 (±0.03)
Unit category
 ER5.0% (29)8.2% (182)
 OR8.3% (48)11.6% (257)
 Adult medicine/surgery35.9% (208)40.9% (909)
 Adult ICU16.7% (97)14.5% (323)
 Stepdown9.5% (55)1.9% (42)
 Paediatric medicine/surgery0.0% (0)3.2% (72)
 Paediatric ICU/NICU5.9% (34)4.0% (89)
 Psychiatry0.0% (0)2.8% (63)
 OB–postpartum10.9% (63)7.8% (174)
 Float pool6.7% (39)2.6% (57)
 Orthopaedics1.2% (7)2.4% (54)
  • *Sampling weights were applied to comparison Hospital B workers based on oversampling of eight study units discussed in Sorensen et al.18

  • ER, emergency room; GED, general education development; ICU, intensive care unit; NICU, neonatal intensive care unit; OR, operating room; SPH, safe patient handling.