Table 5

Unadjusted and adjusted multivariate GLM regression models of the ability of HRFs to predict WC claim total cost

HRFUnadjusted modelAdjusted model
β*(95% CI)p Valueβ*(95% CI)p Value
Lifestyle factors†
 Alcohol use, excessive0.04−0.43 to 0.510.85−0.02−0.57 to 0.530.93
 Drinking and driving, yes0.11−0.16 to 0.380.430.11−0.26 to 0.470.56
 Exercise, inadequate−0.06−0.25 to 0.130.53−0.14−0.38 to 0.090.23
 Fruits/vegetable intake, poor0.00−0.18 to 0.180.99−0.03−0.37 to 0.310.87
 Helmet use, poor−0.10−0.32 to 0.110.35−0.06−0.31 to 0.200.66
 Lifting practices, poor0.03−0.16 to 0.220.78−0.01−0.31 to 0.290.95
 Seat belt use, poor0.05−0.17 to 0.260.67−0.03−0.35 to 0.290.85
 Secondhand smoke, yes−0.10−0.32 to 0.120.400.16−0.11 to 0.430.24
 Sleep, poor0.210.03 to 0.400.020.18−0.12 to 0.470.24
 Smoker, currently0.420.15 to 0.690.000.17−0.20 to 0.550.37
Psychosocial factors†
 Anxiety, chronic0.00−0.23 to 0.240.980.05−0.30 to 0.390.79
 Depression, yes0.14−0.11 to 0.390.29−0.06−0.45 to 0.340.78
 Job health culture, poor−0.01−0.12 to 0.100.85−0.03−0.17 to 0.100.62
 Stress at home, yes0.11−0.12 to 0.330.350.300.06 to 0.540.01
 Stress at work, yes0.03−0.16 to 0.230.740.07−0.24 to 0.380.65
 Stress over finances, yes−0.36−0.55 to −0.170.00−0.36−0.57 to −0.140.00
Health condition factors†
 Arthritis, yes0.13−0.10 to 0.360.27−0.04−0.36 to 0.290.82
 Asthma, yes0.15−0.12 to 0.420.280.05−0.32 to 0.430.78
 Back pain, yes0.250.04 to 0.470.020.08−0.21 to 0.360.60
 Blood pressure, high−0.35−0.57 to −0.130.00−0.17−0.50 to 0.160.31
 BMI, abnormal0.05−0.14 to 0.240.60−0.07−0.34 to 0.190.60
 Cancer, yes−0.17−0.66 to 0.320.500.63−0.13 to 1.380.10
 Cholesterol, high0.390.13 to 0.650.000.06−0.39 to 0.500.81
 Dental examination, no0.13−0.04 to 0.300.13−0.01−0.21 to 0.190.92
 Diabetes, yes0.04−0.37 to 0.450.850.15−0.40 to 0.700.59
 Digestive issues, yes0.13−0.11 to 0.380.280.27−0.02 to 0.560.07
 Fatigue, chronic−0.19−0.47 to−0.25 to 0.590.42
 Headaches, severe0.09−0.13 to 0.310.420.20−0.11 to 0.500.20
 Heart disease, yes0.770.32 to 1.220.00−0.07−1.36 to 1.230.92
 Irritable bowel disorder, yes−0.33−0.62 to −0.030.03−0.33−0.76 to 0.090.12
 Lung disease, yes−0.88−1.28 to −0.48<0.01−0.11−0.87 to 0.650.77
 Osteoporosis, yes0.14−1.78 to 2.060.890.30−0.88 to 1.480.62
 Overall health rating−0.09−0.22 to 0.030.15−0.16−0.34 to 0.020.07
 Physical examination, no−0.21−0.37 to −0.050.01−0.26−0.49 to −0.030.03
 Stroke, yes1.210.82 to 1.60<0.010.53−0.81 to 1.870.44
 κ*−1.19−1.37 to −0.79<0.01−1.50−2.01 to −1.00.<0.01
  • Adjusted model includes age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, pay scheme (salary/hourly), employment type (full time/part time), industry (SIC code), occupation, income and company size (number of employees).

  • *κ is a shape parameter that is used to determine whether the data best fit a generalised gamma distribution or one of the special cases of a generalised gamma distribution (lognormal, Weibull or gamma distribution). Compared to the κs for the other distributions, the κ for the gamma distribution was significantly better (data not shown).

  • †The reference group for each HRF is a worker who did not have the HRF.

  • HRF, health risk factor.