Table 2

 Odds ratios for reproductive outcomes by job held at three months before pregnancy among 398 male painters exposed to paints, thinners, or cleansers and 302 male carpenters without exposure

Outcome variableReported casesOR, crudeOR, adjusted*
PaintersCarpentersOR95% CIOR95% CI
OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval.
*Adjusted for year of pregnancy, maternal age at conception, paternal smoking and alcohol use before pregnancy, and maternal smoking, alcohol use, chemical occupational exposure, physical occupational exposure, and medication use during pregnancy.
†Longer than 12 months.
‡Less than 20 weeks of gestation.
§Less than 37 weeks of gestation.
¶Less than or equal to 2500 g, adjusted for gestational age.
Prolonged time to pregnancy†47331.10.7–1.81.10.7–1.9
Spontaneous abortion‡13100.90.4–2.21.10.4–2.7
Preterm birth§37211.30.7–2.21.20.7–2.2
Low birth weight¶41211.40.8–2.61.70.9–3.2
Birth defects, all37112.51.3–5.12.41.2–4.9
    Congenital malformations1625.91.3–25.96.21.4–27.9
    Functional developmental disorders2191.70.8–3.81.60.7–3.6