Table 8

Rate ratios (relative risks) for lung cancer and for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in relation to cumulative exposure to cadmium

Cumulative exposure to cadmium (μg/m3/y)Unlagged exposure historiesExposure histories lagged by 10 yExposure histories lagged by 20 y
nRR*(95% CI)nRR*(95% CI)nRR*(95% CI)
*Simultaneous adjustment for age (14–34, 35–49, 50–54, 55–59, 60–64, 65–69, 70–74, 75–79, 80–84) and calendar period (1947–65, 1966–70, 1971–75, 1976–80, 1981–85, 1986–90, 1991–95, 1996–2000).
†Any mention of primary lung cancer (ICD-8 162; ICD-9 162) on the death certificate.
‡Any mention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (ICD-8 490-493; ICD-9 490–496) on the death certificate.
Lung cancer
<400111.0181.0271.0
400–1199192.04(0.97 to 4.32)172.05*(1.02 to 4.15)91.76(0.77 to 4.04)
1200–479991.02(0.42 to 2.47)50.59(0.21 to 1.64)71.21(0.49 to 2.98)
⩾480081.02(0.41 to 2.55)70.97(0.39 to 2.41)40.77(0.26 to 2.33)
p value for trendp>0.50p>0.50p>0.50
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
<400181.0251.0341.0
400–1199150.96(0.48 to 1.90)141.14(0.58 to 2.24)121.64(0.99 to 3.38)
1200–4799100.65(0.30 to 1.41)100.77(0.36 to 1.66)50.62(0.23 to 1.66)
⩾4800161.20(0.61 to 2.37)100.93(0.44 to 1.99)81.21(0.52 to 2.78)
p value for trendp>0.50p>0.50p>0.50
All causes
<4001271.01741.02421.0
400–11991030.97(0.75 to 1.26)880.98(0.75 to 1.28)651.12(0.83 to 1.50)
1200–4799990.93(0.71 to 1.21)870.93(0.71 to 1.21)661.05(0.79 to 1.41)
⩾4800931.05(0.80 to 1.38)730.97(0.73 to 1.29)490.95(0.69 to 1.32)
p value for trendp>0.50p>0.50p>0.50