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Effect of informal employment on the relationship between psychosocial work risk factors and musculoskeletal pain in Central American workers
  1. David Gimeno Ruiz de Porras1,2,3,
  2. Marianela Rojas Garbanzo2,4,
  3. Aurora Aragón5,
  4. Lino Carmenate-Milián6,
  5. Fernando G Benavides2,3
  1. 1 Southwest Center for Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Epidemiology, Human Genetics and Environmental Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston School of Public Health, San Antonio, TX, USA
  2. 2 Center for Research in Occupational Health, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
  3. 3 CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública, Spain
  4. 4 Programa Salud, Trabajo y Ambiente en América Central, Instituto Regional de Estudios en Sustancias Tóxicas, Universidad Nacional, Heredia, Costa Rica
  5. 5 Research Center on Health, Work and Environment (CISTA), Autonomous University of Nicaragua at León (UNAN-León), León, Nicaragua
  6. 6 Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras
  1. Correspondence to Marianela Rojas Garbanzo, Programa Salud, Trabajo y Ambiente en América Central, Instituto Regional de Estudios en Sustancias Tóxicas, Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica, Heredia 86-3000, Costa Rica; marianela.rojas.garbanzo{at}una.cr

Abstract

Introduction The constant increase on the psychosocial demands experienced at work seems to contribute to the increase in health problems such as musculoskeletal pain (MSP). This association may be especially important in low-income and middle-income countries, where there is a large proportion of informal workers among whom there is little research. We analysed the association between psychosocial work risk factors and MSP among formal and informal workers using the First Central American Survey of Working Conditions and Health.

Methods This is a representative sample (n=12 024) of the economically active population of the six Spanish-speaking countries of Central America. Prevalence ratios (PR) and corresponding 95% CIs from Poisson regression models were used to estimate the association between psychosocial work risk factors and the MSP.

Results Compared with formal workers, informal workers reported higher prevalence of MPS in the body regions analysed (ie, cervicodorsal, lumbosacral, upper extremities) and higher exposure to psychosocial work risk factors. However, on the whole, the associations between the exposure to psychosocial work risk factors and the prevalence of MSP were similar for both formal and informal workers. Only the association between exposure to high demands and MSP in the upper extremities was higher (p=0.012) among formal (PR=1.69, 95% CI 1.46 to 1.96) than among informal workers (PR=1.40; 95% CI 1.30 to 1.51).

Conclusion Exposure to adverse levels of psychosocial work risk factors is associated with higher prevalence of MPS among both formal and informal workers. However, the role of employment informality in this association is complex and requires further examination.

  • formal economy
  • labour market
  • occupational health, survey
  • working conditions

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Footnotes

  • Contributors MRG, DGRP and FGB conceptualised the study. MRG and DGRP performed all the analyses. MRG wrote the first draft. All the authors contributed to the manuscript revision.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Ethics approval Ethics and human subjects committees of the National University, Heredia, Costa Rica, and The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Texas, USA.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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