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Does socio-economic status modify the effect of particulate air pollution on cardiorespiratory mortality?
  1. Melanie Carder (melanie.carder{at}manchester.ac.uk)
  1. The University of Manchester, United Kingdom
    1. Roseanne McNamee (roseanne.mcnamee{at}manchester.ac.uk)
    1. The University of Manchester, United Kingdom
      1. Iain Beverland (iain.beverland{at}strath.ac.uk)
      1. University of Strathclyde, United Kingdom
        1. Robert A Elton (rob{at}robelton.demon.co.uk)
        1. University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom
          1. Geoff Cohen (geoffrcohen{at}yahoo.com)
          1. Emmes Corporation, United Kingdom
            1. James Boyd
            1. Information and Services Division, NHS National Services Scotland, United Kingdom
              1. Martie van van Tongeren (martie.van.tongeren{at}iom-world.org)
              1. Institute of Occupational Medince, United Kingdom
                1. Raymond M Agius (raymond.agius{at}manchester.ac.uk)
                1. The University of Manchester, United Kingdom

                  Abstract

                  Objectives: To investigate whether deprivation index modifies the acute effect of black smoke on cardiorespiratory mortality.

                  Methods: Generalised linear Poisson regression models were used to investigate whether deprivation index (as measured by the Carstairs deprivation index) modified the acute effect of black smoke on mortality in the two largest Scottish cities (Glasgow and Edinburgh) between January 1981 and December 2001. Lag periods of up to one month were assumed for the effects of black smoke.

                  Results: Deprivation index significantly modified the effect of black smoke on mortality with black smoke effects generally increasing as level of deprivation increased. The interaction coefficient from a parametric model assuming a linear interaction between black smoke (µgm-3) and deprivation in their effect on mortality – equivalent to a test of ‘linear trend’ across Carstairs Categories – was significant for all mortality outcomes. In a model where black smoke effects were estimated independently for each deprivation category, the estimated increase in respiratory mortality over the ensuing one-month period associated with a 10µgm-3 increase in the mean black smoke concentration was 8.0 percent (95% CI: 5.1, 10.9) for subjects residing in the ‘most’ deprived category (Carstairs category 7) compared to 3.7 percent (95% CI: -0.7, 8.4) for subjects residing in the ‘least’ deprived category (Carstairs category 1).

                  Conclusions: The results suggest a stronger effect of black smoke on mortality among people living in more deprived areas. The effect was greatest for respiratory mortality although significant trends were also seen for other groups. If corroborated, these findings could have important public health implications.

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