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Indoor and outdoor fine and ultrafine particles in relation to lung function in asthma / COPD patients in four European cities
  1. Jeroen J de Hartog (j.j.de.hartog{at}uu.nl)
  1. IRAS, Netherlands
    1. Jon G Ayres (j.g.ayres{at}bham.ac.uk)
    1. Institute of Occupational & Environmental Medicine, United Kingdom
      1. Anna Karakatsani (annakara{at}otenet.gr)
      1. National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Medical school, University Hospital, Greece
        1. Antonis Analitis (aanalit{at}med.uoa.gr)
        1. National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Greece
          1. Harry ten Brink (tenbrink{at}ecn.nl)
          1. Energy research Center of the Netherlands, Business Unit ECN clean Fossil Fuels, Netherlands
            1. Kaarle Hameri (kaarle.hameri{at}ttl.fi)
            1. University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, Finland
              1. Roy M Harrison (r.m.harrison.ipe{at}bham.ac.uk)
              1. University of Birmingham, Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, United Kingdom
                1. Klea Katsouyanni (kkatsouy{at}med.uoa.gr)
                1. Univ. of Athens Medical School, Greece
                  1. Anastasia Kotronarou (natasha{at}meteo.noa.gr)
                  1. National Observatory Athens, Institute for Environmental Research and sustainable development, Greece
                    1. Ilias Kavouras (kavouras{at}meteo.noa.gr)
                    1. National Observatory Athens, Institute for Environmental Research and sustainable development, Greece
                      1. Claire Meddings (c.meddings{at}bham.ac.uk)
                      1. University of Birmingham, Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, United Kingdom
                        1. Juha Pekkanen (juha.pekkanen{at}ktl.fi)
                        1. National Public Health Institute and School of Public Health Clinical Nutrition, University Kuopio, Finland
                          1. Gerard Hoek (g.hoek{at}uu.nl)
                          1. IRAS University Utrecht, Netherlands

                            Abstract

                            Objectives: Misclassification of exposure related to the use of central sites may be larger for ultrafine particles than for PM2.5 and PM10 and may result in underestimation of health effects This paper describes the relative strength of the association between outdoor and indoor exposure to ultrafine particles, PM2.5 and PM10 and lung function.

                            Methods: In four European cities (Helsinki, Athens, Amsterdam and Birmingham), lung function (FVC, FEV1 and PEF) was measured with three times a day for one week in 135 patients with asthma or COPD, covering study periods of more than one year. Daily concentrations of particle number, PM2.5 and PM10 were measured at a central site in each city and both inside and outside the subjects’ homes.

                            Results: Daily average particle number concentrations ranged between 2,100 and 66,100 particles/cm3. We found no association between 24-hour average particle number or particle mass concentrations and FVC, FEV1 and PEF. Substituting home outdoor or home indoor concentrations of particulate air pollution instead of the central site measurements did not change the observed associations. Analyses restricted to asthmatics also showed no associations.

                            Conclusions: No consistent associations between lung function and 24-hour average particle number or particle mass concentrations were found in panels of patients with mild to moderate COPD or asthma. More detailed exposure assessment did not change the observed associations. The lack of association could be due to the high prevalence of medication use, limited ability to assess lagged effects over several days or absence of an effect.

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