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Associations of long- and short-term air pollution exposure with markers of inflammation and coagulation in a population sample
  1. Sviatlana Panasevich (sviatlana.panasevich{at}ki.se)
  1. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden
    1. Karin Leander (karin.leander{at}ki.se)
    1. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden
      1. Mats Rosenlund (mats.r.rosenlund{at}gskbio.com)
      1. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden
        1. Petter Ljungman (petter.ljungman{at}ki.se)
        1. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden
          1. Tom Bellander (tom.bellander{at}ki.se)
          1. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden
            1. Ulf de Faire (ulf.defaire{at}ki.se)
            1. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden
              1. Göran Pershagen (goran.pershagen{at}ki.se)
              1. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden
                1. Fredrik Nyberg (fredrik.nyberg{at}ki.se)
                1. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden

                  Abstract

                  Background: Exposure to elevated levels of ambient air pollutants can lead to adverse cardiovascular effects. Potential mechanisms include systemic inflammation and perturbation of the coagulation balance.

                  Objectives: To investigate long- and short-term effects of air pollution exposure on serum levels of inflammatory (IL-6, TNF-α, and CRP) and coagulation (fibrinogen and PAI-1) markers of relevance for cardiovascular pathology.

                  Methods: The study group included a population sample of 1028 men and 508 women aged 45 to 70 years from Stockholm. Long-term air pollution exposure was assessed using spatial modelling of traffic-related NO2 and heating-related SO2 emissions at each subject's residential addresses over retrospective periods of 1, 5, and 30 years. Short-term exposure was assessed as averages of rooftop measurements over 12 to 120 hours before blood sampling.

                  Results: Long-term exposures to both traffic-NO2 and heating-SO2 emissions showed a consistent association with IL-6 levels. 30-year average traffic-NO2 exposure was associated with 64.5% (95%CI 6.7-153.8%) increase in serum IL-6 per 28.8 μg/m3 (corresponding to the difference between the 5th and the 95th percentile exposure value), and 30-year exposure to heating-SO2 with 67.6% (95%CI 7.1-162.2%) increase per 39.4 μg/m3 (5th-95th percentile value difference). The association appeared stronger in non-smokers, physically active people, and hypertensive persons. We observed positive non-significant associations of inflammatory markers with NO2 and PM10 during 24 hours before blood sampling. Short-term exposure to O3 was associated with increased, and SO2 with decreased, fibrinogen levels.

                  Conclusions: Our results suggest that exposure to moderate levels of air pollution may influence serum levels of inflammatory markers.

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