UK Armed Forces have been involved in the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan for longer than the First or Second World Wars. One intervention has now come to an end, the other continues. But what has been the psychological and social cost? The media predict a tidal wave of mental health problems among those who served there – especially given that seems to be happening in the USA. Given that we fought the same enemy, on the same terrain, facing similar threats and risks, and sadly for the last few years taking the same rate of casualties, we should expect the same in the UK. But what does the research show, including about the historical context?