Occup Environ Med 65:347-353 doi:10.1136/oem.2007.035816
  • Original article

Occupation and bladder cancer in a hospital-based case–control study in Spain

  1. C M Samanic1,
  2. M Kogevinas2,3,
  3. D T Silverman1,
  4. A Tardón4,
  5. C Serra5,6,
  6. N Malats2,
  7. F X Real7,8,
  8. A Carrato9,
  9. R García-Closas10,
  10. M Sala11,
  11. J Lloreta12,13,
  12. N Rothman1,
  13. M Dosemeci1
  1. 1
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD, USA
  2. 2
    Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology/Institut Municipal d’Investigació Mèdica, Barcelona, Spain
  3. 3
    Medical School, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece
  4. 4
    Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain
  5. 5
    Corporació Parc Taulí, Sabadell, Spain
  6. 6
    Occupational Health Research Unit, Departament de Ciencies Experimentals i de la Salut, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain
  7. 7
    Departament de Ciencies Experimentals i de la Salut, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain
  8. 8
    Institut Municipal d’Investigació Mèdica, Barcelona, Spain
  9. 9
    Hospital General de Elche, Elche, Spain
  10. 10
    Unidad de Investigación, Hospital Universitaro de Canarias, La Laguna, Spain
  11. 11
    Department of Health, Sabadell, Spain
  12. 12
    Department of Pathology, Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain
  13. 13
    Departament de Ciencies Experimentals i de la Salut, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain
  1. Claudine M Samanic, National Cancer Institute, 6120 Executive Boulevard, Room 8003, Rockville, MD 20852, USA; samanicc{at}
  • Accepted 5 October 2007
  • Published Online First 19 October 2007


Objectives: We investigated the association between occupation and bladder cancer in a hospital-based case–control study conducted in Spain.

Methods: 1219 patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and 1271 controls selected from 18 hospitals in Spain between June 1998 and September 2000 provided detailed information on life-time occupational history, smoking habits, medical history, and other factors. We used unconditional logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each occupation and industry, adjusting for age, hospital region, smoking duration, and employment in a high-risk occupation for bladder cancer.

Results: Statistically significant increased risks were observed among men employed as machine operators in the printing industry (OR 5.4; 95% CI 1.6 to 17.7), among men employed in the transportation equipment industry (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.1 to 2.6) and among those who had worked for ⩾10 years in the electrical/gas/sanitary services (OR 3.9; 95% CI 1.5 to 10.4) and in hotels and other lodgings (OR 3.1; 95% CI 1.3 to 7.3). Men who worked as miscellaneous mechanics and repairers (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.1 to 3.6) and as supervisors in production occupations (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.2 to 3.6) also had excess risks for bladder cancer. Male farmers and those who worked in crop and livestock production had decreased risks for bladder cancer. We found no significant associations between occupation or industry and bladder cancer risk among women.

Conclusions: We did not observe excess bladder cancer risk for many of the occupations identified as being a priori at high risk. Examination of more detailed job exposure information should help clarify these associations.


  • Funding: This research was supported by the Intramural Research Program of the NIH, National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, NCI Contract #N02-CP-11015.

  • Competing interests: None declared.

  • Participating study centres in Spain: Institut Municipal d’Investigació Mèdica, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona – Coordinating Centre (M Kogevinas, N Malats, FX Real, M Sala, G Castaño, M Torè, D Puente, C Villanueva, C Murta, J Fortuny, E López, S Hernández, R Jaramillo, P Fernandez); Hospital del Mar, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (J Lloreta, S Serrano, L Ferrer, A Gelabert, J Carles, O Bielsa, K Villadiego); Hospital Germans Tries i Pujol, Badalona, Barcelona (L Cecchini, JM Saladié, L Ibarz); Hospital de Sant Boi, Sant Boi, Barcelona (M Céspedes); Centre Hospitalari Parc Taulí, Sabadell, Barcelona (C Serra, D García, J Pujadas, R Hernando, A Cabezuelo, C Abad, A Prera, J Prat); Centre Hospitalari i Cardiològic, Manresa, Barcelona (M Domènech, J Badal, J Malet); Hospital Universitario, La Laguna, Tenerife (R García-Closas, J Rodríguez de Vera, AI Martín); Hospital La Candelaria, Santa Cruz, Tenerife (J Taño, F Cáceres); Hospital General Universitario de Elche, Universidad Miguel Hernández, Elche, Alicante (A Carrato, F García-López, M Ull, A Teruel, E Andrada, A Bustos, A Castillejo, JL Soto); Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, Asturias (A Tardón); Hospital San Agustín, Avilés, Asturias (JL Guate, JM Lanzas, J Velasco); Hospital Central Covadonga, Oviedo, Asturias (JM Fernández, JJ Rodríguez, A Herrero); Hospital Central General, Oviedo, Asturias (R Abascal, C Manzano, T Miralles); Hospital de Cabueñes, Gijón, Asturias (M Rivas, M Arguelles); Hospital de Jove, Gijón, Asturias (M Díaz, J Sánchez, O González); Hospital de Cruz Roja, Gijón, Asturias (A Mateos, V Frade); Hospital Alvarez-Buylla, Mieres, Asturias (P Muntañola, C Pravia); Hospital Jarrio, Coaña, Asturias (AM Huescar, F Huergo); Hospital Carmen y Severo Ochoa, Cangas, Asturias (J Mosquera).