A case-control study of 196 histologically proved cases of renal cell carcinoma and 347 controls matched for age at interview, sex, hospital, and interviewer was conducted in France between 1987 and 1991. A complete occupational history was recorded for each patient and occupations were coded blindly according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations. In women, none of the risks were significant. Among men, after adjustment for the educational level, cigarette smoking, and Quetelet index before diagnosis, significantly increased matched odds ratios (ORs) were found for sales workers (OR = 2.1, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.2-4.0), managers (OR = 3.3, 95% CI 1.2-8.9), and textile workers and tailors (OR = 6.2, 95% CI 1.1-33.7). For this last occupational group, an increase in risk was found with an increased duration of exposure.