In a population based case-control study of kidney cancer in New South Wales, data from structured interviews with 489 cases of renal cell cancer (RCC), 147 cases of renal pelvic cancer (CaRP), and 523 controls from the electoral roles were obtained about employment in certain industries or occupations, and exposure to particular chemicals chosen because of suspected associations with kidney cancer. A low level of education increased the risk for CaRP but not RCC. After adjustment for known risk factors, exposure to asbestos significantly increased the risk for RCC (relative risk (RR) = 1.62; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.04-2.53). Working in the dry cleaning industry had a stronger link with CaRP (RR = 4.68; 95% CI 1.32-16.56) than with RCC (RR = 2.49; 95% CI 0.97-6.35). Working in the iron and steel industry doubled the risk for CaRP (RR = 2.13; 95% CI 1.04-4.39) whereas employment in the petroleum refining industry had a non-significant association with CaRP (RR = 2.60; 95% CI 0.88-7.63) and none with RCC.
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